troff - the troff processor of the groff text formatting system . .


. .SY troff .OP -abcivzCERU .OP -d cs .OP -f fam .OP -F dir .OP -I dir .OP -m name .OP -M dir .OP -n num .OP -o list .OP -r cn .OP -T name .OP -w name .OP -W name [ file\~ . . .] .YS . .


. This manual page describes the GNU version of

R troff . It is part of the groff document formatting system. . It is functionally compatible with UNIX troff, but has many extensions, see

R groff_diff (7). Usually it should be invoked using the

R groff (1) command which will also run preprocessors and postprocessors in the appropriate order and with the appropriate options. . .


It is possible to have whitespace between a command line option and its parameter. .


    Generate an ASCII approximation of the typeset output. .


    Print a backtrace with each warning or error message. . This backtrace should help track down the cause of the error. . The line numbers given in the backtrace may not always be correct, for

R troff 's idea of line numbers gets confused by

as or

am requests. .


    Disable color output (always disabled in compatibility mode). .


    Enable compatibility mode. .

  • -d cs
    -d name = s Define c or name to be a string s ; c must be a one letter name. .


    Inhibit all error messages of

R troff . Note that this doesn't affect messages output to standard error by macro packages using the

tm or

tm1 requests. .

  • -f fam
        Use fam as the default font family. .
  • -F dir
        Search in directory (or directory path) dir for subdirectories dev name ( name is the name of the device) and there for the

DESC file and font files. dir is scanned before all other font directories. .


    Read the standard input after all the named input files have been processed. .

  • -I dir
        This option may be used to add a directory to the search path for files (both those on the command line and those named in

.psbb requests). The search path is initialized with the current directory. This option may be specified more than once; the directories are then searched in the order specified (but before the current directory). If you want to make the current directory be read before other directories, add

-I. at the appropriate place.

No directory search is performed for files with an absolute file name. .

  • -m name
        Read in the file .IB name .tmac\fR. If it isn't found, try tmac. name instead. . It will be first searched for in directories given with the

-M command line option, then in directories given in the

GROFF_TMAC_PATH environment variable, then in the current directory (only if in unsafe mode), the home directory, /usr/lib/groff/site-tmac, /usr/share/groff/site-tmac, and /usr/share/groff/1.20.1/tmac. .

  • -M dir
        Search directory (or directory path) dir for macro files. . This is scanned before all other macro directories. .
  • -n num
        Number the first page num . .
  • -o list
        Output only pages in list , which is a comma-separated list of page ranges; n means print page n , .IB m - n means print every page between m and n , - n means print every page up to n , .IB n - means print every page from n .

troff will exit after printing the last page in the list. .

  • -r cn
    -r name = n Set number register c or name to n ; c must be a one character name; n can be any troff numeric expression. .


    Don't load

troffrc and

R troffrc-end . .

  • -T name
        Prepare output for device name , rather than the default

R ps ; see

R groff (1) for a more detailed description. .


    Unsafe mode. . This will enable the following requests:

R open ,

R opena ,

R pso ,

R sy , and

R pi . For security reasons, these potentially dangerous requests are disabled otherwise. . It will also add the current directory to the macro search path. .


    Print the version number. .

  • -w name
        Enable warning name . Available warnings are described in the section WARNINGS below. . For example, to enable all warnings, use


R all . Multiple

-w options are allowed. .

  • -W name
        Inhibit warning name . Multiple

-W options are allowed. .


    Suppress formatted output. . .


. The warnings that can be given by

troff are divided into the following categories. . The name associated with each warning is used by the

-w and

-W options; the number is used by the

warn request, and by the

.warn register; it is always a power of 2 to allow bitwise composition. .

tab(@), center, box;
c c c | c c c
r rI lB | r rI lB.


\nxuR .

R break

    In fill mode, lines which could not be broken so that their length was less than the line length. . This is enabled by default. .

R char

    Non-existent characters. . This is enabled by default. .

R color

    Color related warnings. .

R delim

    Missing or mismatched closing delimiters. .

R di

    Use of

di or

da without an argument when there is no current diversion. .

R el

    Use of the

el request with no matching

ie request. .

R escape

    Unrecognized escape sequences. . When an unrecognized escape sequence is encountered, the escape character is ignored. .

R font

    Non-existent fonts. . This is enabled by default. .

R ig

    Invalid escapes in text ignored with the

ig request. . These are conditions that are errors when they do not occur in ignored text. .

R input

    Invalid input characters. .

R mac

    Use of undefined strings, macros and diversions. . When an undefined string, macro or diversion is used, that string is automatically defined as empty. . So, in most cases, at most one warning will be given for each name. .

R missing

    Requests that are missing non-optional arguments. .

R number

    Invalid numeric expressions. . This is enabled by default. .

R range

    Out of range arguments. .

R reg

    Use of undefined number registers. . When an undefined number register is used, that register is automatically defined to have a value of\~0. . So, in most cases, at most one warning will be given for use of a particular name. .

R right-brace

    Use of

\[rs]} where a number was expected. .

R scale

    Meaningless scaling indicators. .

R space

    Missing space between a request or macro and its argument. . This warning will be given when an undefined name longer than two characters is encountered, and the first two characters of the name make a defined name. . The request or macro will not be invoked. . When this warning is given, no macro is automatically defined. . This is enabled by default. . This warning will never occur in compatibility mode. .

R syntax

    Dubious syntax in numeric expressions. .

R tab

    Inappropriate use of a tab character. Either use of a tab character where a number was expected, or use of tab character in an unquoted macro argument. .

There are also names that can be used to refer to groups of warnings: .


    All warnings except

R di ,

R mac , and

R reg . It is intended that this covers all warnings that are useful with traditional macro packages. .


    All warnings. . .



  •     .B GROFF_TMAC_PATH A colon separated list of directories in which to search for macro files.

troff will scan directories given in the

-M option before these, and in standard directories (current directory if in unsafe mode, home directory,

R /usr/lib/groff/site-tmac ,

R /usr/share/groff/site-tmac ,

R /usr/share/groff/1.20.1/tmac ) after these. .

  •     .B GROFF_TYPESETTER Default device. .

  •     .B GROFF_FONT_PATH A colon separated list of directories in which to search for the dev name directory.

troff will scan directories given in the

-F option before these, and in standard directories ( /usr/share/groff/site-font ,

R /usr/share/groff/1.20.1/font ,

R /usr/lib/font ) after these. . .




    Initialization file (called before any other macro package). .


    Initialization file (called after any other macro package). .

  • /usr/share/groff/1.20.1/tmac/ name .tmac
    /usr/share/groff/1.20.1/tmac/tmac. name Macro files .
  • /usr/share/groff/1.20.1/font/dev name /DESC
        Device description file for device name . .
  • /usr/share/groff/1.20.1/font/dev name / F
        Font file for font F of device name .

Note that

troffrc and

troffrc-end are neither searched in the current nor in the home directory by default for security reasons (even if the

-U option is given). . Use the

-M command line option or the

GROFF_TMAC_PATH environment variable to add these directories to the search path if necessary. . .


. Copyright (C) 1989, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2007, 2008, 2009 Free Software Foundation, Inc. .

This document is distributed under the terms of the FDL (GNU Free Documentation License) version 1.3 or later. . You should have received a copy of the FDL on your system, it is also available on-line at the http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html GNU copyleft site This document was written by James Clark, with modifications from .MT Werner Lemberg .ME and .MT Bernd Warken .ME . .

This document is part of groff , the GNU roff distribution. . .



R groff (1)

    The main program of the groff system, a wrapper around troff . .

R groff (7)

    A description of the groff language, including a short but complete reference of all predefined requests, registers, and escapes of plain groff . From the command line, this is called by

man 7 groff .

R groff_diff (7)

    The differences of the groff language and the classical troff language. . Currently, this is the most actual document of the groff system. .

R roff (7)

    An overview over groff and other roff systems, including pointers to further related documentation. .

The groff info file , cf.

R info (1), presents all groff documentation within a single document. . .