groff - front-end for the groff document formatting system . .
2. SYNOPSIS ▲
. .SY groff .OP -abcegiklpstzCEGNRSUVXZ .OP -d cs .OP -D arg .OP -f fam .OP -F dir .OP -I dir .OP -K arg .OP -L arg .OP -m name .OP -M dir .OP -n num .OP -o list .OP -P arg .OP -r cn .OP -T dev .OP -w name .OP -W name [ file\~ . . .] . .SY groff
--help . .SY groff
--version [ option\~ . . .] .YS . .
3. DESCRIPTION ▲
. This document describes the
groff program, the main front-end for the groff document formatting system. . The groff program and macro suite is the implementation of a
R roff (7) system within the free software collection http://www.gnu.org GNU . The groff system has all features of the classical roff , but adds many extensions. .
groff program allows to control the whole groff system by command line options. . This is a great simplification in comparison to the classical case (which uses pipes only). . .
4. OPTIONS ▲
The command line is parsed according to the usual \f[CR]GNU\f convention. . The whitespace between a command line option and its argument is optional. . Options can be grouped behind a single `-' (minus character). . A filename of
- (minus character) denotes the standard input. .
groff is a wrapper program for
troff both programs share a set of options. . But the
groff program has some additional, native options and gives a new meaning to some
troff options. . On the other hand, not all
troff options can be fed into
R groff . . .
4.1. Native groff Options ▲
. The following options either do not exist for
troff or are differently interpreted by
R groff . . .
- -D arg
Set default input encoding used by
preconv to arg . . Implies
R -k . . .
R eqn . . .
R grn . . .
R grap . . .
--help Print a help message. . .
- -I dir
This option may be used to specify a directory to search for files (both those on the command line and those named in
.so requests, and
\X'ps: import' and
\X'ps: file' escapes). The current directory is always searched first. This option may be specified more than once; the directories are searched in the order specified. No directory search is performed for files specified using an absolute path. This option implies the
-s option. . .
R preconv . This is run before any other preprocessor. . Please refer to
R preconv 's manual page for its behaviour if no
R -D ) option is specified. . .
- -K arg
Set input encoding used by
preconv to arg . . Implies
R -k . . .
Send the output to a spooler program for printing. . The command that should be used for this is specified by the
print command in the device description file, see
R groff_font (5). If this command is not present, the output is piped into the
R lpr (1) program by default. . See options
R -X . . .
- -L arg
Pass arg to the spooler program. Several arguments should be passed with a separate -L option each. . Note that
groff does not prepend `-' (a minus sign) to arg before passing it to the spooler program. . .
Don't allow newlines within eqn delimiters. . This is the same as the
-N option in
R eqn . . .
R pic . . .
- -P -option
-P -option -P arg Pass -option or "-option\~arg" to the postprocessor. . The option must be specified with the necessary preceding minus sign(s) .Quoted - or .Quoted -- because
groff does not prepend any dashes before passing it to the postprocessor. . For example, to pass a title to the
gxditview postprocessor, the shell command .
is equivalent to .
R refer . . No mechanism is provided for passing arguments to
refer because most
refer options have equivalent language elements that can be specified within the document. . See
R refer (1) for more details. . .
R soelim . . .
Safer mode. . Pass the
-S option to
pic and disable the following
R .open ,
R .opena ,
R .pso ,
R .sy , and
R .pi . For security reasons, safer mode is enabled by default. . .
R tbl . . .
- -T dev
Set output device to dev . For this device,
troff generates the intermediate output ; see
R groff_out (5). . Then
groff calls a postprocessor to convert
R troff 's intermediate output to its final format. . Real devices in
groff are .
TeX DVI format (postprocessor is
R grodvi ). .
xhtml HTML and XHTML output (preprocessors are
R pre-grohtml , postprocessor is
R post-grohtml ). .
Canon CAPSL printers (LBP-4 and LBP-8 series laser printers; postprocessor is
R grolbp ). .
HP LaserJet4 compatible (or other PCL5 compatible) printers (postprocessor is
R grolj4 ). .
PostScript output (postprocessor is
R grops ). . .
For the following TTY output devices (postprocessor is always
R grotty ),
-T selects the output encoding: .
7bit \f[CR]ASCII\f. .
Latin-1 character set for EBCDIC hosts. .
ISO 8859-1. .
Unicode character set in UTF-8 encoding. . .
The following arguments select
gxditview as the `postprocessor' (it is rather a viewing program): .
75 dpi resolution, 10 pt document base font.
75 dpi resolution, 12 pt document base font.
100 dpi resolution, 10 pt document base font.
100 dpi resolution, 12 pt document base font. .
The default device is
R ps . . .
Unsafe mode. . Reverts to the (old) unsafe behaviour; see option
R -S . . .
--version Output version information of
groff and of all programs that are run by it; that is, the given command line is parsed in the usual way, passing
-v to all subprograms. . .
Output the pipeline that would be run by
R groff (as a wrapper program) on the standard output, but do not execute it. If given more than once, the commands are both printed on the standard error and run. . .
gxditview instead of using the usual postprocessor to (pre)view a document. . The printing spooler behavior as outlined with options
-L is carried over to
R gxditview (1) by determining an argument for the
-printCommand option of
R gxditview (1). . This sets the default
Print action and the corresponding menu entry to that value. .
-X only produces good results with
R -Tps ,
R -TX75 ,
R -TX75-12 ,
R -TX100 , and
R -TX100-12 . . The default resolution for previewing
-Tps output is 75 dpi; this can be changed by passing the
-resolution option to
R gxditview , for example .
Suppress output generated by
R troff . Only error messages are printed. . .
Do not automatically postprocess groff intermediate output in the usual manner. This will cause the
troff output to appear on standard output, replacing the usual postprocessor output; see
R groff_out (5). . .
4.2. Transparent Options ▲
. The following options are transparently handed over to the formatter program
troff that is called by
groff subsequently. . These options are described in more detail in
R troff (1). .
\f[CR]ASCII\f approximation of output. .
Backtrace on error or warning. .
Disable color output. . Please consult the
R grotty (1) man page for more details. .
Enable compatibility mode. .
- -d cs
-d name = s Define string. .
troff error messages. .
- -f fam
Set default font family. .
- -F dir
Set path for font DESC files. .
Process standard input after the specified input files. .
- -m name
Include macro file .IB name .tmac (or tmac. name\c ); see also
R groff_tmac (5). .
- -M dir
Path for macro files. .
- -n num
Number the first page num . .
- -o list
Output only pages in list . .
- -r cn
-r name = n Set number register. .
- -w name
Enable warning name . .
- -W name
disable warning name . . .
5. USING GROFF ▲
. The groff system implements the infrastructure of classical roff; see
R roff (7) for a survey on how a roff system works in general. . Due to the front-end programs available within the groff system, using groff is much easier than "classical roff" . . This section gives an overview of the parts that constitute the groff system. . It complements
R roff (7) with groff -specific features. . This section can be regarded as a guide to the documentation around the groff system. . .
5.1. Paper Size ▲
. The virtual paper size used by
troff to format the input is controlled globally with the requests
R .po ,
R .pl , and
R .ll . See
R groff_tmac (5) for the `papersize' macro package which provides a convenient interface. .
The physical paper size, giving the actual dimensions of the paper sheets, is controlled by output devices like
R grops with the command line options
R -l . See
R groff_font (5) and the man pages of the output devices for more details.
groff uses the command line option
-P to pass options to output devices; for example, the following selects A4 paper in landscape orientation for the PS device: .
5.2. Front-ends ▲
groff program is a wrapper around the
R troff (1) program. . It allows to specify the preprocessors by command line options and automatically runs the postprocessor that is appropriate for the selected device. . Doing so, the sometimes tedious piping mechanism of classical
R roff (7) can be avoided. .
R grog (1) program can be used for guessing the correct groff command line to format a file. .
R groffer (1) program is an allround-viewer for groff files and man pages. . .
5.3. Preprocessors ▲
. The groff preprocessors are reimplementations of the classical preprocessors with moderate extensions. . The standard preprocessors distributed with the groff package are .
R eqn (1)
for mathematical formul(ae, .
R grn (1)
R gremlin (1) pictures, .
R pic (1)
for drawing diagrams, .
R chem (1)
for chemical structure diagrams, .
R refer (1)
for bibliographic references, .
R soelim (1)
for including macro files from standard locations, .
R tbl (1)
for tables. .
A new preprocessor not available in classical troff is
R preconv (1) which converts various input encodings to something
groff can understand. . It is always run first before any other preprocessor. .
Besides these, there are some internal preprocessors that are automatically run with some devices. . These aren't visible to the user. . .
5.4. Macro Packages ▲
. Macro packages can be included by option
R -m . . The groff system implements and extends all classical macro packages in a compatible way and adds some packages of its own. . Actually, the following macro packages come with groff : .
The traditional man page format; see
R groff_man (7). It can be specified on the command line as
R -m\~man . .
The general package for man pages; it automatically recognizes whether the documents uses the man or the mdoc format and branches to the corresponding macro package. . It can be specified on the command line as
R -m\~mandoc . .
The \f[CR]BSD\f-style man page format; see
R groff_mdoc (7). It can be specified on the command line as
R -m\~mdoc . .
The classical me document format; see
R groff_me (7). It can be specified on the command line as
R -m\~me . .
The classical mm document format; see
R groff_mm (7). It can be specified on the command line as
R -m\~mm . .
The classical ms document format; see
R groff_ms (7). It can be specified on the command line as
R -m\~ms . .
HTML-like macros for inclusion in arbitrary groff documents; see
R groff_www (7). .
Details on the naming of macro files and their placement can be found in
R groff_tmac (5); this man page also documents some other, minor auxiliary macro packages not mentioned here. . .
5.5. Programming Language ▲
. General concepts common to all roff programming languages are described in
R roff (7). .
The groff extensions to the classical troff language are documented in
R groff_diff (7). .
The groff language as a whole is described in the (still incomplete) "groff info file" ; a short (but complete) reference can be found in
R groff (7). . .
5.6. Formatters ▲
. The central roff formatter within the groff system is
R troff (1). It provides the features of both the classical troff and nroff , as well as the groff extensions. . The command line option
troff into "compatibility mode" which tries to emulate classical roff as much as possible. .
There is a shell script
R nroff (1) that emulates the behavior of classical
R nroff . . It tries to automatically select the proper output encoding, according to the current locale. .
The formatter program generates "intermediate output" ; see
R groff_out (7). . .
5.7. Devices ▲
. In roff , the output targets are called devices . A device can be a piece of hardware, e.g., a printer, or a software file format. . A device is specified by the option
R -T . The groff devices are as follows. .
Text output using the
R ascii (7) character set. .
Text output using the EBCDIC code page IBM cp1047 (e.g., OS/390 Unix). .
TeX DVI format. .
HTML output. .
Text output using the ISO Latin-1 (ISO 8859-1) character set; see
R iso_8859_1 (7). .
Output for Canon CAPSL printers (LBP-4 and LBP-8 series laser printers). .
HP LaserJet4-compatible (or other PCL5-compatible) printers. .
PostScript output; suitable for printers and previewers like
R gv (1). .
Text output using the Unicode (ISO 10646) character set with UTF-8 encoding; see
R unicode (7). .
XHTML output. .
75dpi X Window System output suitable for the previewers
R xditview (1x) and
R gxditview (1). . A variant for a 12 pt document base font is
R X75-12 . .
100dpi X Window System output suitable for the previewers
R xditview (1x) and
R gxditview (1). . A variant for a 12 pt document base font is
R X100-12 . .
The postprocessor to be used for a device is specified by the
postpro command in the device description file; see
R groff_font (5). . This can be overridden with the
-X option. .
The default device is
R ps . . .
5.8. Postprocessors ▲
. groff provides 3\~hardware postprocessors: .
R grolbp (1)
for some Canon printers, .
R grolj4 (1)
for printers compatible to the HP LaserJet\~4 and PCL5, .
R grotty (1)
for text output using various encodings, e.g., on text-oriented terminals or line-printers. .
Today, most printing or drawing hardware is handled by the operating system, by device drivers, or by software interfaces, usually accepting PostScript. . Consequently, there isn't an urgent need for more hardware device postprocessors. .
The groff software devices for conversion into other document file formats are .
R grodvi (1)
for the DVI format, .
R grohtml (1)
for HTML and XHTML formats, .
R grops (1)
for PostScript. .
Combined with the many existing free conversion tools this should be sufficient to convert a troff document into virtually any existing data format. . .
5.9. Utilities ▲
. The following utility programs around groff are available. .
R addftinfo (1)
Add information to troff font description files for use with groff . .
R afmtodit (1)
Create font description files for PostScript device. .
R eqn2graph (1)
eqn image into a cropped image. .
R gdiffmk (1)
Mark differences between groff , nroff , or troff files. .
R grap2graph (1)
grap diagram into a cropped bitmap image. .
R groffer (1)
General viewer program for groff files and man pages. .
R gxditview (1)
The groff X viewer, the \f[CR]GNU\f version of
R xditview . .
R hpftodit (1)
Create font description files for lj4 device. .
R indxbib (1)
Make inverted index for bibliographic databases. .
R lkbib (1)
Search bibliographic databases. .
R lookbib (1)
Interactively search bibliographic databases. .
R pdfroff (1)
Create PDF documents using
R groff . .
R pfbtops (1)
Translate a PostScript font in .pfb format to \f[CR]ASCII\f. .
R pic2graph (1)
pic diagram into a cropped image. .
R tfmtodit (1)
Create font description files for TeX DVI device. .
R xditview (1x)
.I roff viewer distributed with X window. .
R xtotroff (1)
Convert X font metrics into \f[CR]GNU\f troff font metrics. . .
6. ENVIRONMENT ▲
. Normally, the path separator in the following environment variables is the colon; this may vary depending on the operating system. . For example, DOS and Windows use a semicolon instead. . .
- .EnvVar GROFF_BIN_PATH
This search path, followed by .EnvVar $PATH , is used for commands that are executed by
R groff . . If it is not set then the directory where the groff binaries were installed is prepended to .EnvVar PATH . . .
- .EnvVar GROFF_COMMAND_PREFIX
When there is a need to run different roff implementations at the same time groff provides the facility to prepend a prefix to most of its programs that could provoke name clashings at run time (default is to have none). . Historically, this prefix was the character
R g , but it can be anything. . For example,
R gtroff stood for groff 's
R troff ,
R gtbl for the groff version of
R tbl . . By setting .EnvVar GROFF_COMMAND_PREFIX to different values, the different roff installations can be addressed. . More exactly, if it is set to prefix xxx then
groff as a wrapper program internally calls .IB xxx troff instead of
R troff . This also applies to the preprocessors
R eqn ,
R grn ,
R pic ,
R refer ,
R tbl ,
R soelim , and to the utilities
R lookbib . . This feature does not apply to any programs different from the ones above (most notably
groff itself) since they are unique to the groff package. . .
- .EnvVar GROFF_ENCODING
The value of this environment value is passed to the
preconv preprocessor to select the encoding of input files. . Setting this option implies
R groff 's command line option
-k (this is,
groff actually always calls
R preconv ). . If set without a value,
preconv without arguments. . An explicit
-K command line option overrides the value of .EnvVar GROFF_ENCODING . . See
R preconv (1) for details. . .
- .EnvVar GROFF_FONT_PATH
A list of directories in which to search for the dev name directory in addition to the default ones. . See
R troff (1) and
R groff_font (5) for more details. . .
- .EnvVar GROFF_TMAC_PATH
A list of directories in which to search for macro files in addition to the default directories. . See
R troff (1) and
R groff_tmac (5) for more details. . .
- .EnvVar GROFF_TMPDIR
The directory in which temporary files are created. . If this is not set but the environment variable .EnvVar TMPDIR instead, temporary files are created in the directory .EnvVar $TMPDIR . On MS-DOS and Windows\~32 platforms, the environment variables .EnvVar TMP and .EnvVar TEMP (in that order) are searched also, after .EnvVar GROFF_TMPDIR and .EnvVar TMPDIR . . Otherwise, temporary files are created in
R /tmp . The
R refer (1),
R groffer (1),
R grohtml (1), and
R grops (1) commands use temporary files. . .
- .EnvVar GROFF_TYPESETTER
Preset the default device. . If this is not set the
ps device is used as default. . This device name is overwritten by the option
R -T . . .
7. FILES ▲
. There are some directories in which groff installs all of its data files. . Due to different installation habits on different operating systems, their locations are not absolutely fixed, but their function is clearly defined and coincides on all systems. . .
7.1. groff Macro Directory ▲
. This contains all information related to macro packages. . Note that more than a single directory is searched for those files as documented in
R groff_tmac (5). . For the groff installation corresponding to this document, it is located at /usr/share/groff/1.20.1/tmac . . The following files contained in the groff macro directory have a special meaning: . .
Initialization file for troff . . This is interpreted by
troff before reading the macro sets and any input. . .
Final startup file for troff . . It is parsed after all macro sets have been read. . .
- .IB name .tmac
tmac. name Macro file for macro package name . . .
7.2. groff Font Directory ▲
. This contains all information related to output devices. . Note that more than a single directory is searched for those files; see
R troff (1). . For the groff installation corresponding to this document, it is located at /usr/share/groff/1.20.1/font . . The following files contained in the "groff font directory" have a special meaning: . .
- dev name /DESC
Device description file for device name , see
R groff_font (5). . .
- dev name / F
Font file for font F of device name . . .
8. EXAMPLES ▲
. The following example illustrates the power of the
groff program as a wrapper around
R troff . .
To process a roff file using the preprocessors
pic and the
me macro set, classical troff had to be called by .
R groff , this pipe can be shortened to the equivalent command .
-T latin1 foo.me
An even easier way to call this is to use
R grog (1) to guess the preprocessor and macro options and execute the generated command (by using backquotes to specify shell command substitution) .
The simplest way is to view the contents in an automated way by calling .
9. BUGS ▲
On \f[CR]EBCDIC\f hosts (e.g., \f[CR]OS/390 Unix\f), output devices
latin1 aren't available. . Similarly, output for \f[CR]EBCDIC\f code page
cp1047 is not available on \f[CR]ASCII\f based operating systems. .
Report bugs to .MT the groff maling list .ME . . Include a complete, self-contained example that allows the bug to be reproduced, and say which version of groff you are using. . .
10. AVAILABILITY ▲
. Information on how to get groff and related information is available at the http://www.gnu.org/software/groff groff GNU website . The most recent released version of groff is available at the http://groff.ffii.org/groff/devel/groff-current.tar.gz groff development site .
Three groff mailing lists are available:
.MT for reporting bugs .ME . .
.MT for general discussion of groff , .ME .
.MT the groff commit list .ME , a read-only list showing logs of commitments to the CVS repository. .
Details on CVS access and much more can be found in the file
README at the top directory of the groff source package. .
There is a free implementation of the
grap preprocessor, written by .MT Ted Faber .ME . . The actual version can be found at the . http://www.lunabase.org/~faber/Vault/software/grap/ grap website This is the only grap version supported by groff . . .
11. AUTHORS ▲
. Copyright © 1989, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009 Free Software Foundation, Inc. .
This document is distributed under the terms of the \f[CR]FDL\f (\f[CR]GNU Free Documentation License\f) version 1.3 or later. . You should have received a copy of the \f[CR]FDL\f on your system, it is also available on-line at the http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html GNU copyleft site .
This document is based on the original groff man page written by .MT James Clark . It was rewritten, enhanced, and put under the FDL license by Bernd Warken. . It is maintained by .MT Werner Lemberg .ME . .
groff is a \f[CR]GNU\f free software project. . All parts of the groff package are protected by \f[CR]GNU copyleft licenses\f. . The software files are distributed under the terms of the \f[CR]GNU General Public License\f (\f[CR]GPL\f), while the documentation files mostly use the \f[CR]GNU Free Documentation License\f (\f[CR]FDL\f). . .
12. SEE ALSO ▲
. The groff info file contains all information on the groff system within a single document, providing many examples and background information. . See
R info (1) on how to read it. .
Due to its complex structure, the groff system has many man pages. . They can be read with
R man (1) or
R groffer (1). .
- Introduction, history and further readings:
.BR roff (7). .
- Viewer for groff files:
.BR groffer (1),
R gxditview (1),
R xditview (1x). .
- Wrapper programs for formatters:
.BR groff (1),
R grog (1). .
- Roff preprocessors:
.BR eqn (1),
R grn (1),
R pic (1),
R chem (1),
R preconv (1),
R refer (1),
R soelim (1),
R tbl (1),
R grap (1). .
- Roff language with the groff extensions:
.BR groff (7),
R groff_char (7),
R groff_diff (7),
R groff_font (5). .
- Roff formatter programs:
.BR nroff (1),
R troff (1),
R ditroff (7). .
- The intermediate output language:
.BR groff_out (7). .
- Postprocessors for the output devices:
.BR grodvi (1),
R grohtml (1),
R grolbp (1),
R grolj4 (1),
R lj4_font (5),
R grops (1),
R grotty (1). .
- Groff macro packages and macro-specific utilities:
.BR groff_tmac (5),
R groff_man (7),
R groff_mdoc (7),
R groff_me (7),
R groff_mm (7),
R groff_mmse (7),
R groff_mom (7),
R groff_ms (7),
R groff_www (7),
R groff_trace (7),
R mmroff (7). .
- The following utilities are available:
.BR addftinfo (1),
R afmtodit (1),
R eqn2graph (1),
R gdiffmk (1),
R grap2graph (1),
R groffer (1),
R gxditview (1),
R hpftodit (1),
R indxbib (1),
R lkbib (1),
R lookbib (1),
R pdfroff (1),
R pfbtops (1),
R pic2graph (1),
R tfmtodit (1),
R xtotroff (1). . .