dvipdfm - Produce PDF files directly from DVI files


dvipdfm [ options ] file [.dvi]


The program

dvipdfm generates a PDF file from a DVI file. DVI files are the output format produced by TeX. Output from

groff can be converted to DVI format using

R grodvi . The program

dvipdfm recognizes several commonly used

R \special commands, which are extensions to the DVI format. Specifically, it understands color specials, papersize specials, tpic specials (which allow it to be used with

R pic ), hypertex specials, and some PostScript specials. These extensions allow documents to contain color, figures, and hyperlinks. The program tries to mimic the behavior of

dvips so that many macro packages produced for use with

dvips will work with

dvipdfm. Dvipdfm understands its own specific

\special commands to allow access to PDF features such as annotations and bookmarks. For more details, consult the "Dvipdfm User's Manual," which is distributed with




     Ignore color

R \specials . The

-c toggles a flag that disables color

\special processing. Unless changed in the configuration file, that flag is off, and color

R \special are interpreted normally. The

-c option may be used to produce a black and white document from a document containing color TeX

\special commands.


     Remove thumbnail images after including them. (See the

-t option for more information.)


     Toggle partial font embedding flag. If partial font embedding is off, embedded fonts are fully embedded. The default, if not changed in the configuration file, is to embed only those glyphs actually used in the document.

-f map_file

     Set the name of the font map file to map_file . The format of the font map file is documented in the "Dvipdfm User's Manual" .


     Select landscape mode. In other words, exchange the x and y dimensions of the paper.


     Magnify the input document by mag .


     Generate PDF output file having the name name . By default, the name of the output file is file .pdf.


     Select the papersize by name (e.g.,

R letter )


     Set resolution of bitmapped fonts to

size dots per inch. Bitmapped fonts are generated by the Kpathsea library, which uses MetaFont. Bitmapped fonts are included as type 3 fonts in the PDF output file.


     Select the pages of the DVI file to be converted. The page_specifications consists of a comma separated list of page_ranges:

"page_specifications := page_specification" "[," page_specifications "]"


"page_specification := single_page" | page_range
 "page_range := " [ first_page ]-[ last_page ]

An empty first_page is implied to be the first page of the DVI file. An empty last_page is treated as the last page of the DVI file. Examples:

-s 1,3,5

     includes pages 1, 3, and 5;

-s -

     includes all pages;

-s -,-

     includes two copies of all pages in the DVI file; and

-s 1-10

     includes the first ten pages of the DVI file.


     Search for thumbnail images of each page in the directory named by the

TMPDIR environment variable. The thumbnail images must be named in a specific format. They must have the same base name as the DVI file and they must have the page number as the extension to the file name. Dvipdfm does not generate the thumbnails itself, but it is distributed with a wrapper program named

dvipdft that does so.


     Increase verbosity. Results of the

-v option are cumulative (e.g.,

-vv ) increases the verbosity by two increments.

-x x_offset

     Set the left margin to x_offset . The default left margin is

R 1.0in . The dimension may be specified in any units understood by TeX (e.g.,

R bpt )

-y y_offset

     Set the top margin to y_offset . The default top margin is

R 1.0in . The dimension may be specified in any units understood by TeX (e.g.,

R bpt )

-z compression_level

     Set the compression level to compression_level . Compressions levels range from 0 (no compression) to 9 (maximum compression) and correspond to the values understood by zlib.


Dvipdfm uses the

kpathsea library for locating the files that it opens. Hence, the environment variables documented in the Kpathsea library documentation influence

dvipdfm. Dvipdfm also reads the following environment variables:

  • TMP
         The directory to search for thumbnail images of each page.


The precise location of the following files is determined by the Kpathsea library configuration. The location may be determined by using kpsewhich, e.g.,

DEBUTGRASkpsewhich -progname=dvipdfm -format='other text files' config FINGRAS

  • config
         Startup options
  • t1fonts.map
         The default font map file (this name may be changed in the config file).
  • *.tfm
         TeX font metrics
  • *.vf
         TeX virtual font files
  • *.pfb
         PostScript Type 1 font files

  •      texmf.cnf The Kpathsea library configuration file. The location of this file may be found by typing

DEBUTGRASkpsewhich texmf.cnf FINGRAS


R tex and the "Kpathsea library" info documentation.


Mark A. Wicks < >